It is how an author expresses his or her thoughts that reveals character, asserts social psychologist James W.
Systematic instruction in phonics skills and sight word reading are key components of effective, early reading instruction. Research-based instruction in phonics includes explicit instruction in sounding out letters and blending letters to form words, and ongoing instruction in letter-sound correspondences for simple as well as more complex phonics patterns.
Gaining mastery of fundamental skills for decoding simple, one-syllable words provides students with a strong foundation for accurate decoding of longer and more complex words at later stages of reading development. Systematic sight word instruction is focused on promoting students' automatic recognition of words that occur with the highest frequency in texts, including words that follow regular phonics patterns as well as those that do not.
In addition to explicit instruction and teacher-monitored practice in these areas, students need frequent practice applying these skills to achieve mastery. Activities that reinforce instruction in these areas play a key role in promoting students' ability to recognize words automatically.
Spelling Development later in this chapter. Phonics Phonics knowledge is knowledge of the correspondences in an alphabetic language between letters or letter patterns and the sounds of spoken language represented by those letters i.
Children learning to read in English must master these correspondences. In addition, children must master decoding skills enabling them to sound out a sequence of written letters and then blend the sounds together in words. An effective phonics program begins by teaching students to decode words with simple syllable patterns e.
As readers progress, they learn more advanced or complex phonics patterns and the sounds and spellings of inflectional endings, prefixes, and suffixes, as well as strategies for decoding multisyllable words see the next section of this chapter Core Content: Syllabication and Structural Analysis.
After examining a wide body of research, the National Reading Panel concluded that students who receive systematic and explicit phonics instruction are more likely to experience reading success than students receiving non-systematic phonics instruction or no phonics instruction.
That is, phonics instruction promotes reading success and is more effective when a set of letter-sound relationships is taught directly and in a clearly defined, logical sequence.
As an essential part of that process, children must be given ample opportunities to apply what they are learning about letters and sounds to the reading of words, sentences, and books.
Good phonics instruction shares several characteristics including Clarifying the purpose and goal of instruction at the onset of the lesson Using visual or concrete materials that will make learning the new phonics skill s more memorable.
Letter cards, cards for word-sorting activities, dry-erase boards or other concrete resources provide students a visual link to their learning.
Providing direct instruction of letter sounds. Make the instruction as explicit and as concrete as possible.
Providing direct instruction in decoding of letter sounds in words. Knowledge of phonics is useful only if students can apply this knowledge to recognize words during reading. Provide explicit instruction in sounding out letters and blending sounds into words. Planning for guided and independent practice.
Enhance the effectiveness of instruction by having students practice new skills with teacher feedback and by planning for students' independent practice until they achieve skill mastery. Providing students with regular opportunities to practice new learning in phonics by reading decodable texts i.
Other activities for reinforcing explicit phonics instruction include, word reading and word sorts based on previously taught spelling patterns. Planning for student application of new phonics skills in other contexts. Provide students with opportunities to transfer skills to a broader range of texts and reading and writing activities that will support their ongoing development of literacy skills and enhance their motivation by promoting their ownership of new learning.
Sight Words A reader's sight word vocabulary represents the words the reader recognizes almost instantly and with little conscious effort, or automatically. The goal of sight word instruction is to help beginning and developing readers efficiently recognize both regular and irregular high-frequency and high-utility words.
It is particularly important to the development of reading fluency See section below, "Core Content: Reading Fluency" that beginning readers recognize most words in a text automatically.Swot Analysis - Auto Parts Store Words | 6 Pages.
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These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'analysis.' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'superstore.' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors.
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No work was devoted to the other 20 words. At the conclusion of each 6 sessions, the patients were retested on the 20 drilled and, 20 non-drilled words. Though there was some inter-subject variability, all showed essentially the same pattern of improvement.