Student Answers maria-vivanco Student Family has a major influence on values and expectation. Your parents hsve expectation of you and when you are born into a certain mindset that influence you for your entire life. For example, ever since I was a little kid i have gone to church and I was born into that Since my family was religious.
Comparison of expression levels in colon carcinoma with tumor grade low versus moderate versus high with Kruskal Wallis test. Comparison of expression levels in healthy colon and colon carcinoma samples from different tumor sites caecum and Valve of Bauhin versus colon ascendens, transversum, descendens and hepatic flexure versus sigmoid with Kruskal Wallis test.
Comparison of expression levels in patients younger than 70 years or of 70 years versus patients older than 70 with Mann-Whitney test. These studies, which used specimens obtained by surgical resection or colonoscopic biopsy, yielded contradictory results.
We studied the effect of the sampling method on the marker accuracy of VEGF family members. Conclusions Sampling-induced hypoxia in resection samples but not in biopsy samples affects the marker-reliability of VEGF family members.
VEGF family members, Colon cancer, Sampling procedure, Biomarker, Hypoxic stress Background Colorectal cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in females and the third in males. It is the second leading cause of cancer-related death [ 1 ].
Worldwide, it accounts for over 1. Colon carcinoma evolves from a premalignant adenoma precursor stage or polyp. The progression from adenoma to carcinoma is a multistep process involving cumulative genetic and epigenetic alterations in proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and DNA repair genes [ 2 - 4 ].
Colon carcinoma tissue samples have been intensively studied in search for tissue-based diagnostic, prognostic and predictive markers. Samples are routinely obtained by two different clinical procedures. During colonoscopy, which is the gold standard for detection of colon carcinoma and adenoma, biopsies of polyp-like extrusions are obtained for pathological examination, and these extrusions are removed whenever possible.
In surgical resection, carcinoma-like outgrowths are removed by cutting out part of the colon containing the suspected outgrowth as well as some surrounding healthy tissue.
However, little is known about the impact of the sampling method on the overall condition of the sampled tissue or the expression levels of potential cancer biomarker genes.
Several studies consistently showed elevated VEGF-A expression levels in most solid tumors, including colon carcinoma [ 5 - 9 ]. Furthermore, these elevated expression levels have been correlated with tumor progression [ 10 - 12 ].
VEGF-A is an inflammation and hypoxia responsive gene, and its biomarker function is believed to be related to the hypoxic growth conditions characteristically associated with rapidly growing solid tumors and to its ability to promote the development of new vasculature [ 1113 ].
Furthermore, some of these studies reported contradictory results. As such, similar expression levels of VEGF-C in healthy and carcinoma tissue were reported in three studies [ 5814 ].
However, other studies reported higher levels [ 67 ] that were correlated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis [ 8 ]. We believe that some of these controversial findings might have resulted from the use of different types of colon tissue samples.
Several studies performed expression analysis on samples obtained during surgical resection [ 578 ]. Others used biopsies obtained during colonoscopy [ 14 ] or did not specify the sampling method [ 6 ]. Yet, both sampling procedures differ strikingly; the acquirement of colon biopsies requires only minutes, whereas during surgical resection part of the colon is clamped off for a considerable length of time.
To examine to what extent the sampling procedure may affect VEGF gene expression, we analyzed mRNA expression levels of all five VEGF family members in colon carcinoma samples obtained by biopsy and in others obtained by surgical resection.
Results Surgical resection induces hypoxic cellular stress in healthy colon tissue To examine to what extent the sampling procedure biopsy versus surgical resection may affect the overall condition of the sampled tissue, we analyzed the mRNA expression of COX2 and 5-LOX in samples of healthy colon tissue.
Combined, these results indicate the induction by the surgical resection procedure of hypoxic cellular stress in the resected tissue.The politically inconvenient conclusion that family background explained more about a child’s achievement than did school resources ran contrary to contemporary priorities, which were focused on improving educational inputs such as school expenditure levels, class size, and teacher quality.
Birth Order Matters: The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Educational Attainment∗ We use unique retrospective family background data from the British Household Panel Survey to explore the degree to which family size and birth order affect a child’s subsequent educational attainment.
In statistics, an effect size is a quantitative measure of the magnitude of a phenomenon. The effect size does not directly determine the significance level, or vice versa.
Categorical family: Effect sizes for associations among categorical variables.
Which of the following factors does not directly affect family size and composition? A. the divorce rate B. the marriage rate C.
the GDP rate D. societal values D? kathi anderson forever never lasts Ms. Sue Saturday, September 7, at pm. I disagree. Please do not include your full name in these posts. The Effects of Family, Social and Background Factors on Children's Educational Attainment Social, and Background Factors on Children's Educational Attainment.
background variables including family income, family type, family size, and parents'. The Effects of Family, Social and Background Factors on Children's Educational Attainment Social, and Background Factors on Children's Educational Attainment.
background variables including family income, family type, family size, and parents'.