Agri-footprint Comprehensive Environmental Data Archive CEDA Calculations for impact can then be done by hand, but it is more usual to streamline the process by using software. This can range from a simple spreadsheet, where the user enters the data manually to a fully automated program, where the user is not aware of the source data. For example, trees produce paper, which can be recycled into low-energy production cellulose fiberised paper insulationthen used as an energy-saving device in the ceiling of a home for 40 years, saving 2, times the fossil-fuel energy used in its production. After 40 years the cellulose fibers are replaced and the old fibers are disposed of, possibly incinerated.
The cycle describes how a product matures and declines as a result of internationalization. There are three stages contained within the theory.
New Product Introduction The cycle always begins with the introduction of a new product. In this stage a corporation in a developed country will innovate a new product.
The market for this product will be small and sales will be relatively low as a result. Vernon deduced that innovative products are more likely to be created in a developed nation because the buoyant economy means that people have more disposable income to use on new products.
To offset the impact of low sales, corporations will keep the manufacture of the product local, so that as process issues arise or a need to modify the product in its infancy stage presents itself, changes can be implemented without too much risk and without wasting time.
As sales increase, corporations may start to export the product out to other developed nations to increase sales and revenue. Product Maturing At this point, when the product has firmly established demand in developed countries, the manufacturer of the product will need to consider opening up production plants locally in each developed country to meet the demand.
As the product is being produced locally, labor costs and export and costs will decrease thereby reducing the unit cost and increasing revenue. Product development can still occur at this point as there is still room to adapt and modify the product if needed.
Appetites for the product in developed nations will continue to increase in this stage. Although the unit costs have decreased due to the decision to produce the product locally, the manufacture of the product will still require a highly skilled labor force.
Local competition to offer alternatives start to form. The increased product exposure begins to reach the countries that have a less developed economy, and demand from these nations start to grow.
Product Standardization Exports to nations with a less developed economy begin in earnest.
Competitive product offers saturate the market which means that the original purveyor of the product loses their competitive edge on the basis of innovation. In response to this, rather than continuing to add new features to the product, the corporation focuses on driving down the cost of the process to manufacture the product.
They do this by moving production to nations where the average income is much lower and standardizing and streamlining the manufacturing methods needed to make the product. The local workforce in lower income nations are then exposed to the technology and methods to make the product and competitors begin to rise as they did in developed nations previously.
Meanwhile, demand in the original nation where the product came from begins to decline and eventually dwindles as a new product grabs the attention of the people.
The market for the product is now completely saturated and the multinational corporation leaves the manufacture of the product in low income countries and instead, focuses its attention on new product development as it bows gracefully out of the market.
What is left of the market share is divvied up between predominantly foreign competitors and people in the original country who want the product at this point, will most likely buy an imported version of the product from a nation where the incomes are lower.
Then the cycle begins again.Reinventing the Supply Chain Life Cycle: Strategies and Methods for Analysis and Decision Making (FT Press Operations Management) 1st Edition.
Key strategies to consider throughout the different product life cycle stages, and how to make the most of each stage. International product life cycle (IPLC) This marketing describes the diffusion process of an innovation across national boundaries.
Typically, demand first grows in the innovating country (usually a developed nation like United States). Powerful LCA Tools and LCA Databases for Product and Process Sustainability Analyses.
GaBi - the world's leading Life Cycle Assessment Software. Download the demo! ESRI Product Life Cycle Support Policy 4 | P a g e J u n e 2 0, 2 0 1 7 To review the life cycle for a specific product, please refer to the Product Life Cycle pages and select the product of interest.
international product life cycle theory a company will begin exporting its product and later undertake foreign direct investment as the product moves through its life cycle (stages: new product, maturing product, standardized product).