His political trajectory is the subject of an expansive literature, as his political philosophy evolved from a broad republicanism and democratic idealism in the early s to an antidemocratic autocracy and repudiation of republican ideals by the late s.
After a coup on 19 AprilVenezuela achieved de facto independence when the Supreme Junta of Caracas was established and the colonial administrators deposed. The trio met with Francisco de Miranda and persuaded him to return to his native land. Inhe was given a military command in TunjaNew Granada modern-day Colombiaunder the direction of the Congress of United Provinces of New Granadawhich had formed out of the juntas established in After an assassination attempt in Jamaica,  he fled to Haitiwhere he was granted protection.
Sucre destroyed the still numerically superior remnants of the Spanish forces at Ayacucho on 9 December Their mismanagement, their profligacy, and their thirst for plunder soon alienated the affections of the inhabitants.
Ininternal divisions sparked dissent throughout the nation, and regional uprisings erupted in Venezuela.
The new South American union had revealed its fragility and appeared to be on the verge of collapse. To preserve the union, an amnesty was declared and an arrangement was reached with the Venezuelan rebels, but this increased the political dissent in neighboring New Granada.
The convention almost ended up drafting a document which would have implemented a radically federalist form of government, which would have greatly reduced the powers of a central administration.
The federalist faction was able to command a majority for the draft of a new constitution which has definite federal characteristics despite its ostensibly centralist outline.
Eventually it was decided to submit them to martial justice, after which those accused of being directly involved were executed, some without having their guilt fully established.
Santander, who had known in advance of the conspiracy and had not directly opposed it because of his differences with Bolivar, was condemned to death.
Bolivar, though, commuted the sentence. After the facts, Bolivar, who suffering from tuberculosis, continued to govern in a rarefied environment, cornered by fractional disputes.
Uprisings occurred in New Granada, Venezuela, and Ecuador during the following two years. The separatists accused him of betraying republican principles and of wanting to establish a permanent dictatorship.
Sucre was killed on 4 June He dreamed of a united Spanish America and in the pursuit of that purpose he not only created Gran Colombia but also the Confederation of the Andes whose aim was to unite the aforementioned with Peru and Bolivia. Moreover, he promoted a network of treaties keeping the newly liberated South American countries together.
Nonetheless, he was unable to control the centrifugal process which pushed outwards all directions.
Today I cease to govern you. I have served you for twenty years as soldier and leader. During this long period we have taken back our country, liberated three republics, fomented many civil wars, and four times I have returned to the people their omnipotence, convening personally four constitutional congresses.
These services were inspired by your virtues, your courage, and your patriotism; mine is the great privilege of having governed you. The constitutional congress convened on this day is charged by Providence with the task of giving the nation the institutions she desires, following the course of circumstances and the nature of things.
Fearing that I may be regarded as an obstacle to establishing the Republic on the true base of its happiness, I personally have cast myself down from the supreme position of leadership to which your generosity had elevated me.
I have been the victim of ignominious suspicions, with no possible way to defend the purity of my principles. The same persons who aspire to the supreme command have conspired to tear your hearts from me, attributing to me their own motives, making me seem to be the instigator of projects they themselves have conceived, representing me, finally, as aspiring to a crown which they themselves have offered on more than one occasion and which I have rejected with the indignation of the fiercest republican.
Never, never, I swear to you, has it crossed my mind to aspire to a kingship that my enemies have fabricated in order to ruin me in your regard. Do not be deceived, Colombians! My only desire has been to contribute to your freedom and to be the preservation of your peace of mind.
If for this I am held guilty, I deserve your censure more than any man. Do not listen, I beg you, to the vile slander and the tawdry envy stirring up discord on all sides. Will you allow yourself to be deceived by the false accusations of my detractors?
Please don't be foolish! Gather around the constitutional congress. It represents the wisdom of the nation, the legitimate hope of the people, and the final point of reunion of the patriots.
Its sovereign decrees will determine our lives, the happiness of the Republic, and the glory of Colombia. If dire circumstances should cause you to abandon it, there will be no health for the country, and you will drown in the ocean of anarchy, leaving as your children's legacy nothing but crime, blood, and death.
Hear my final plea as I end my political career; in the name of Colombia I ask you, beg you, to remain united, lest you become the assassins of the country and your own executioners. Gran Colombia was dissolved later that year and was replaced by the republics of Venezuela, New Granada, and Ecuador.Simon Bolivar was a great South American soldier, statesman and revolutionary who came to be known as El Libertador (The Liberator).
In the early part of the . Simon Bolivar - The Liberator Essay - Simon Bolivar - The Liberator Simon Bolivar was proclaimed “Liberator” by his own people and a world-renowned figure in his day. His prophetic vision of hemispheric solidarity lives today, and his political thinking serves dictators .
Simon Bolivar Essay Words | 3 Pages BEGINNING Simon Jose Antonio de la Santisima Trinidad Bolivar was born in Caracas on July 24, to don Juan Vicente Bolivar y Ponte y dona Maria de la Concepcion Palacios y Blanco. Simón Bolívar, byname The Liberator or Spanish El Libertador, (born July 24, , Caracas, Venezuela, New Granada [now in Venezuela]—died December 17, , near Santa Marta, Colombia), Venezuelan soldier and statesman who led the revolutions against Spanish rule in the Viceroyalty of New Granada.
Simón Bolívar: Simon Bolivar, Venezuelan soldier and statesman who led the revolutions against Spain in the Viceroyalty of New Granada.
ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA. Start Your Free Trial It was in Quito that the Liberator met the great passion of his life, Manuela Sáenz. Simon Bolivar, the Liberator, organized and led military forces, never numbering more than ten thousand, to free the northern portion of South America from Spanish rule in the early nineteenth century.
His direct action resulted in independence for Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia.