Sociability Escape Again, differences were found based on amount of use and gender. Those who used the instant messaging service frequently "heavy users" were found to be most motivated by affection and sociability; those who did not "light users" were most motivated by fashion. Women chatted longer and for sociability; men chatted for less time per session and for entertainment and relaxation.
Characteristics A block of electrolytically refined cobalt It is attacked by halogens and sulfur. It does not react with hydrogen gas H2 or nitrogen gas N2 even when heated, but it does react with boroncarbonphosphorusarsenic and sulfur. Green cobalt II oxide CoO has rocksalt structure.
These halides exist in anhydrous and hydrated forms. Whereas the anhydrous dichloride is blue, the hydrate is red. Cobalt III fluoride, which is used in some fluorination reactions, reacts vigorously with water.
The principles of electronegativity and hardness—softness of a series of ligands can be used to explain the usual oxidation state of cobalt. One of the isomers determined was cobalt III hexammine chloride. This coordination complex, a typical Werner-type complex, consists of a central cobalt atom coordinated by six ammine orthogonal ligands and three chloride counteranions.
Using chelating ethylenediamine ligands in place of ammonia gives tris ethylenediamine cobalt III chloride [Co en 3]Cl3which was one of the first coordination complexes to be resolved into optical isomers. The complex exists in the right- and left-handed forms of a "three-bladed propeller".
This complex was first isolated by Werner as yellow-gold needle-like crystals.
Organocobalt chemistry Cobaltocene is a structural analog to ferrocenewith cobalt in place of iron. Cobaltocene is much more sensitive to oxidation than ferrocene.
Isotopes of cobalt 59Co is the only stable cobalt isotope and the only isotope that exists naturally on Earth. Twenty-two radioisotopes have been characterized; the most stable, 60Co has a half-life of 5. This element also has 4 meta statesall of which have half-lives shorter than 15 minutes.
The primary decay mode for isotopes with atomic mass unit values less than that of the most abundant stable isotope, 59Co, is electron capture and the primary mode of decay in isotopes with atomic mass greater than 59 atomic mass units is beta decay.
The primary decay products below 59Co are element 26 iron isotopes; above that the decay products are element 28 nickel isotopes. The excavation of the Uluburun shipwreck yielded an ingot of blue glass, cast during the 14th century BC. The oldest cobalt-colored glass is from the eighteenth dynasty of Egypt — BC.
The source for the cobalt the Egyptians used is not known. The first attempts to smelt those ores for copper or nickel failed, yielding simply powder cobalt II oxide instead.
Because the primary ores of cobalt always contain arsenic, smelting the ore oxidized the arsenic into the highly toxic and volatile arsenic oxideadding to the notoriety of the ore.
Brandt called it a new "semi-metal". Cobalt became the first metal to be discovered since the pre-historical period. All other known metals iron, copper, silver, gold, zinc, mercury, tin, lead and bismuth had no recorded discoverers.
With the discovery of cobalt ore in New Caledonia inthe mining of cobalt in Europe declined. With the discovery of ore deposits in OntarioCanada in and the discovery of even larger deposits in the Katanga Province in the Congo inthe mining operations shifted again.
In some cases, industry was able to change to cobalt-free alternatives. Seaborg discovered the radioisotope cobalt An adequate supply of the ore was found in Idaho near Blackbird canyon in the side of a mountain.
The firm Calera Mining Company started production at the site. Free cobalt the native metal is not found on Earth because of the oxygen in the atmosphere and the chlorine in the ocean. Both are abundant enough in the upper layers of the Earth's crust to prevent native metal cobalt from forming.
Except as recently delivered in meteoric iron, pure cobalt in native metal form is unknown on Earth. The element has a medium abundance but natural compounds of cobalt are numerous and all amounts of cobalt compounds are found in most rocks, soil, plants, and animals.
In nature, cobalt is frequently associated with nickel. Both are characteristic components of meteoric ironthough cobalt is much less abundant in iron meteorites than nickel.Dec 16, · Media and Elections.
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IN THE SUPREME COURT OF THE STATE OF ILLINOIS. Order entered July 1, Effective January 1, , the provisions of the Illinois Rules of Professional Conduct will be repealed and replaced by the following Illinois Rules of Professional Conduct of